Many fascinating mosques to be explored in Old Cairo, including: Ibn Tulun, built between AD 876 and 879 and the oldest mosque in Cairo; Al-Azhar Mosque, constructed in AD 971 as both a mosque and madrassah (school); the Aqsunqur, or Blue, Mosque, built by Prince Aqsunqur Al-Nassery in AD 1347, so named because of its walls of is ink blue and turquoise mosaic; the Mohammed Ali Mosque (the Alabaster Mosque) within the walls of the Citadel built in AD 1183.

Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt. Coptic churches range from great cathedrals like Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral to the smallest churches in rural villages. Many ancient monasteries like Monastery of Saint Anthony survive. Ancient churches like the Hanging Church in Coptic Cairo carry important historical value to the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Copts in general.